African American Soldier: An Iconic Photo from the Civil War

Estimated reading time: 3 minutes

The following is a guest post by Helena Zinkham, Chief, Prints & Photographs Division.

The portrait of this African American family has such a powerful impact that it has become a widely used representation for many aspects of the Civil War era. Donated in 2010 to the Library of Congress, the photograph is already a much admired, iconic treasure.

Photo showing Black man in uniform, woman wearing bonnet beside him, and a girl on either side of the aduults

Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform with his wife and two daughters. Quarter-plate ambrotype, 1863-1865. Shown without the frame. Liljenquist Family Civil War Photograph Collection. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppss.00400

When historian Drew Gilpin Faust accepted the John W. Kluge Prize for Achievement in the Study of Humanity in 2018, she selected this photo to represent the importance of history to transcend time. She said, it is the soldier’s “own declaration of independence, his personal affirmation that all men, that he has been, created equal, that he is fighting for a new birth of freedom.”

Dr. Faust also generalized the experience of this family and recalled the 200,000 African American soldiers who stepped forward to claim full citizenship. “These soldiers staring into the photographer’s lens are self-consciously reaching through history. They are documenting their faces and their uniforms partly because they know they may be killed in the battles ahead. But they also know they are making history in this war, and they want to capture that for us. Attention must be paid they are saying. Don’t forget who we were and what we did. Let us give you the means to see us, to understand us, long after we are gone.”

In concluding her remarks, Dr. Faust observed, “Our present is delivered to us at a price paid by those who came before. History helps us remember our accountability to them, as well as our obligations to more than just ourselves and more than just our own time. It is a way of knowing and valuing that has never mattered more.”

Photo showing Black man in uniform, Black woman wearing bonnet beside him, and two girls on either side of the adults, in ornate brass mat and brown frame

The photograph is in a protective brass mat within a decorative wall frame. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.36454

What do you see in this photograph?  Look closely, and the round pin on the soldier’s jacket looks like an Abraham Lincoln campaign button from 1864.

Photo of Abraham Lincoln in circular frame

Abraham Lincoln. Political campaign button for 1864 presidential election. Tintype. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.19437

As you continue to look at the image, you might have more questions than definite answers. I certainly do, and that’s part of the appeal in iconic images—they inspire the desire to learn more. The family’s name was not saved with the photo, and I wonder: Where did they live? Who made the matching outfits for the sisters? Is the soldier a veteran of the Civil War or a new recruit? I also respect the confidence, defiance, and concern in their expressions as they face the future together.

Learn More:

from Picture This: Library of Congress Prints & Photos https://blogs.loc.gov/picturethis/2021/11/african-american-soldier-an-iconic-photo-from-the-civil-war/

By Håkan Dahlström

Hi! I am Håkan. I am the author of this website. I work with IT and photography is my hobby. I also like to travel and cooking. Living in Malmö, Sweden.

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